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9 músicas para entender a ditadura militar no Brasil

Quer estudar um pouco mais sobre a ditadura militar através da música? Ouça músicas que foram censuradas durante o período, e que nos mostram o lado e ideias dos artistas que sofreram perseguição por parte do governo.

A ditadura militar foi um período marcante na história do nosso país, e não raro ela é destacada como a época em que foram praticados vários Atos Institucionais além da censura, a perseguição política, a supressão de direitos constitucionais, a falta de democracia e a repressão àqueles que eram contrários ao regime militar.

A ditadura militar no Brasil teve início com o golpe militar de 31 de março de 1964, resultando no afastamento do Presidente da República, João Goulart, e tomando o poder o Marechal Castelo Branco. Inicialmente, este golpe de estado durou até a eleição de Tancredo Neves em 1985. Os militares na época justificaram o golpe, sob a alegação de que havia uma ameaça comunista no país.

Um dos episódios mais marcantes da ditadura militar no Brasil foi a censura.

Foram 21 anos de restrição à liberdade civil. A liberdade de expressão e de organização eram quase inexistentes. Consequentemente, partidos políticos, sindicatos, agremiações estudantis e outras organizações representativas da sociedade foram suprimidas ou sofreram interferência do governo. Os meios de comunicação e as manifestações artísticas foram reprimidos pela censura.

Nesse período muitos artistas viram suas músicas na lista de censura da repressão. Mas nem por isso eles pararam de produzir suas canções. Em outras palavras, eles utilizaram a arte para mascarar sua militância contra a política da época.

De maneira combativa muitos dos importantes, e hoje consagrados, artistas brasileiros buscaram maneiras de driblar o retrocesso artístico que censura trouxe consigo. Muitas dessas músicas tornaram-se um marco de uma época que o Brasil não pode esquecer.

1. Pra Não Dizer Que Não Falei das Flores (Geraldo Vandré)

ditadura militar

Pra Não Dizer que Não Falei das Flores é uma canção escrita e interpretada por Geraldo Vandré, que ficou em segundo lugar no Festival Internacional da Canção de 1968. Ela tornou-se um hino de resistência dos movimentos contra à ditadura militar brasileira.

Porém, por conta do enorme sucesso, a canção foi proibida pelos militares. Em resumo porque a letra da música incitava o povo a resistir, unir forças contra a violência e opressão de um governo.

“Nas escolas, nas ruas

Campos, construções

Somos todos soldados

Armados ou não

Caminhando e cantando

E seguindo a canção

Somos todos iguais

Braços dados ou não”

2. Apesar de Você (Chico Buarque)

ditadura militar

Chico Buarque foi um alvo recorrente da ditadura, tendo dezenas de músicas censuradas. Apesar de você foi lançada em 1970, durante o governo do general Médici.

No entanto, a letra fazia uma clara referência a este ditador. Além disso, ela falava implicitamente sobre a falta de liberdade durante do governo. Para driblar a censura, ele usou a desculpa que a música contava a história de uma briga de casal.

A desculpa de certa maneira funcionou, o disco foi gravado e a música conquistou os ouvintes das rádios de todo o país. No entanto os oficiais do exército logo perceberam a real intenção e a canção foi proibida de tocar nas rádios. Oito anos mais tarde, durante o final do governo do general Ernesto Geisel, a canção foi liberada.

Apesar de Você é uma canção que te ajuda a entender a ditadura militar no Brasil. Deixando claro que apesar do governo ditador ter a força de abafar a manifestação popular ele não consegue manter o povo para sempre debaixo de sua censura e que haverá a cobrança cedo ou tarde.

3. O Bêbado e o Equilibrista (Elis Regina)

ditadura militar

O Bêbado e o Equilibrista foi composta por Aldir Blanc e João Bosco e gravada por Elis Regina em 1979. A canção ganhou o apelido de o “Hino da Anistia”. Pois representava o pedido da população pela anistia, um movimento consolidado no final da década de 70.

Nesse sentido, a letra fala sobre o choro de Marias e Clarisses, em alusão às esposas do operário Manuel Fiel Filho e do jornalista Vladimir Herzog, assassinados sob tortura pelo exército. Além disso, também há o pedido da “volta do irmão do Henfil”, que era o sociólogo e ativista Hebert José de Sousa, exilado no México.

4. Alegria, Alegria (Caetano Veloso)

ditadura militar

A música “Alegria, Alegria” foi lançada em 1967, por Caetano Veloso, marcando o início do movimento Tropicalismo. A canção foi escrita nos “anos de chumbo”, como era chamado o governo do então presidente Emílio Garrastazu Médici.

Posteriormente estudantes foram às ruas para protestar contra o governo, que destruía as universidades implantando a censura e negação do conhecimento à população. A cultura importada de outros países era uma maneira de alienar a população.

Caetano ficou exilado em Londres por quase dois anos e foi classificado como “persona non grata”, até 1972. “Alegria, Alegria” denuncia o abuso do poder, a violência praticada pelo regime e precariedade da educação no Brasil.

5. Cálice (Chico Buarque e Milton Nascimento)

ditadura militar

A música Cálice, lançada por Chico Buarque em 1973 é uma das músicas mais fortes e significativas do período da ditadura militar. A letra faz alusão a oração de Jesus Cristo dirigida a Deus no Jardim do Getsêmane: “Pai, afasta de mim este cálice”.

Contudo, para quem lutava pela democracia, o silêncio também era uma forma de morte. Muitas pessoas foram caladas e mortas, por pensarem diferente do governo e por lutarem para serem escutadas.

A partir disso, nasceu a ideia de Chico Buarque: explorar a sonoridade e o duplo sentido das palavras “cálice” e “cale-se” para criticar o regime instaurado e a censura. A crítica em relação às torturas feitas pelo governo é clara.

6. É Proibido Proibir (Caetano Veloso)

ditadura militar

É proibido proibir é uma música de Caetano Veloso, lançada em 1968. Essa canção era uma manifestação das grandes mudanças culturais que estavam ocorrendo no mundo na década de 1960.

Entretanto, na apresentação realizada no Teatro da Universidade Católica de São Paulo, a música de Caetano foi recebida com furiosa vaia pelo público que lotava o auditório. Indignado, Caetano fez um longo e inflamado discurso que quase não se podia ouvir, tamanho era o barulho dentro do teatro.

7. Acender as Velas (Zé Kéti)

ditadura militar

A música “Acender as velas foi lançada em 1965 e é considerada uma das maiores composições do sambista Zé Keti. A letra do samba possui um impacto forte, criado pelo relato dramático do dia a dia da favela na época da ditadura.

De fato, é uma crítica social às péssimas condições de vida nos morros do Rio de Janeiro na década de 1960. Afinal, o modelo repressivo da ditadura militar fomentou a violência contra os pobres, o que acabou tornando-se um impedimento para a ação do Estado na resolução dos problemas das favelas. 

8. Que as Crianças Cantem Livres (Taiguara)

ditadura militar

Que as Crianças Cantem Livres” é uma composição de Taiguara, lançada em 1973. No mesmo ano o cantor se exilou em Londres. Essa canção é uma das outras tantas que marcaram a obra do compositor.

Taiguara foi o cantor mais censurado da ditadura militar, tendo 68 canções censuradas durante o período de maior endurecimento do regime, no fim da década de 1960 até meados da década de 1970.

Em meados de 1975 ele retornou ao Brasil para fazer uma apresentação com a participação dos músicos Hermeto Pascoal e Wagner Tiso. No entanto, o show foi cancelado e o dinheiro arrecado com a bilheteria dos ingressos foi recolhida pela polícia em menos de 72 horas, o que levou Taiguara a fugir novamente do país e só retornar com o fim da ditadura militar.

9. Jorge Maravilha (Chico Buarque)

ditadura militar

Jorge Maravilha, lançada em 1974, é mais uma música de Chico Buarque, agora sob o pseudônimo de Julinho de Adelaide, criado para driblar a censura. Os versos “você não gosta de mim, mas sua filha gosta” pareciam uma relação conflituosa entre sogro, genro e filha.

Mas, na verdade, faziam alusão à família do general Geisel. Geisel odiava Chico Buarque. No entanto, a filha do militar manifestava interesse pelo trabalho do compositor. Eita, uma cutucada logo no ponto fraco!

Apesar disso, segundo o próprio Chico Buarque, numa declaração ao Jornal Folha de S. Paulo em 1977, o tal verso se referia a uma situação vivida pelo cantor durante a prisão na ditadura militar, quando um segurança do DOPS pediu um autógrafo para a filha dele.

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